The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The will ofthe Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. Between 1901 and 2016, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 579 times to 911 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organizations, and 881 individuals.
Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award. The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.
The laureates are given a sum of money when they receive their prizes, in the form of a document confirming the amount awarded. The amount of prize money depends upon how much money the Nobel Foundation can award each year. The value has increased since the 1980s, when the prize money was US$350 000, per prize. In 2009, the monetary award was US$1.4 million. It is common for recipients to donate prize money to benefit scientific, cultural, or humanitarian causes.
Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize.
Here is a list of some Nobel Peace Prize winners. Read the list and answer the questions below:
NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS
1964 – Martin Luther King Jr.- The United States
“King spent his time working in various areas of the civil rights movement; from equal education to economic growth of minorities. King also organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”.
1979 – Mother Teresa-India
“Founder of Missionaries of Charity”.
1989 – Dalai Lama – Tibet
“In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet he consistently has opposed the use of violence.”
1993 – Nelson Mandela-South Africa
“for his work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”.
2001- Kofi Annan – Ghana
“for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world”.
2007 -Al Gore- The United States
“for their efforts to build up greater knowledge about man-made climate change “.
“for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between countries”.
2014 – Malala Yousafzai- Pakistan
“for her non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”
Grade the celebrities below from 10 (outstanding) and 1 (poor) according to what they have contributed to society and their countries.
______ Steve Jobs _______ Barack Obama
______ The Beatles _______ Bill Gates
______ Oprah Winfrey _______ George W. Bush
______ Steven Spielberg _______ Queen Elisabeth II
_____ Sergey Brin and Larry Page ______ Pele